At the end of the 18th century, the United States had few professional writers or artists and lacked a class of patrons to subsidize the arts. But during the decades before the Civil War, distinctively American art and literature emerged. In the 1850s, novels appeared by African-American and Native American writers. Mexican-Americans and Irish immigrants also contributed works on their experiences. Beginning with historical paintings of the American Revolution, artists attracted a large audience. Landscape painting also proved popular. An indigenous popular culture also emerged between 1800 and 1860, consisting of penny newspapers, dime novels, and minstrel shows.
On 7 August 2014, Radosh reviewed Diana West 's American Betrayal in FrontPage Magazine . He criticized her limited knowledge of the scholarly literature and called her thesis—that infiltration of the . government by Stalinist agents and fellow-travelers significantly altered Allied policies during World War II so as to favor of the Soviet Union—a "yellow journalism conspiracy theory".  Michael J. Totten also praised Radosh's "masterful takedown".  John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr , scholars of Soviet espionage, came to the defense of Radosh in an article rejecting the crucial contention that Roosevelt's right-hand man, Harry Hopkins, was a Soviet spy.  Vladimir Bukovsky , a Soviet dissident , describes Radosh's review as dishonest and full of distortions. [ citation needed ] Numerous [ weasel words ] conservative authors [ who? ] and commentators also strongly criticized both Radosh and the small group of writers who rushed to his defense, and the event turned into a seminal controversy within conservatism in recent years. [ citation needed ] West published a follow-up book focusing on the attack on her by Radosh and others; Radosh has acknowledged that some of his assertions in his initial critique were not accurate. [ citation needed ] The journal The New Criterion had a full-fledged dialogue about the issues that arose due to his critique of West.