As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material, the organism must be regenerated from that single cell. In plants this is accomplished through the use of tissue c ulture .   In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells .  Bacteria consist of a single cell and reproduce clonally so regeneration is not necessary. Selectable markers are used to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These markers are usually present in the transgenic organism, although a number of strategies have been developed that can remove the selectable marker from the mature transgenic plant. 
Another issue to consider is how to best maintain and patch bioinformatics software. Much of it is written and maintained by many entities, which makes it difficult to patch and has led to a high prevalence of out-of-date software.
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